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Thursday, July 18, 2019

GS PAPER-III DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS for UPSC CSE


Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System (CCTNS)
 Context: Against a target of covering 14306 police stations, a total of 14874 police stations (excluding police stations in Bihar) have been covered under the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS), which includes new police stations.
What is CCTNS project?
Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS) is a project initiated in June 2009 which aims at creating a comprehensive and integrated system for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of policing at the Police Station level. This will be done through adoption of principles of e-Governance, and creation of a nationwide networked infrastructure for evolution of IT-enabled state-of-the-art tracking system around “investigation of crime and detection of criminals”. CCTNS is a Mission Mode Project (MMP) under the National e-Governance Plan of Govt. of India.
What it does?
  • The Project will interconnect about 15000 Police Stations and additional 5000 offices of supervisory police officers across the country and digitize data related to FIR registration, investigation and charge sheets in all Police Stations.
  • It will not only automate Police functions at Police station and higher levels but will also create facilities and mechanism to provide public services like registration of online complaints, ascertaining the status of case registered at the police station, verification of persons, etc.
  • In 2015, an additional objective of establishing a basic platform for an Inter-operable Criminal Justice System (ICJS) was added to the Project.

Benefits:
  • The Full implementation of the Project with all the new components would lead to a Central citizen portal having linkages with State level citizen portals that will provide a number of citizen friendly services like Police Verification for various purposes including passport verification, reporting a crime including cyber-crime and online tracking of the case progress etc.
  • The project will enable National level crime analytics to be published at increased frequency, which will help the policy makers as well as lawmakers in taking appropriate and timely action, it will also enable Pan-India criminal/accused name search in the regional language for improved inter-state tracking of criminal movement. This would lead to development of a national database of crimes and criminals.


 Context: DoT and Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to develop a Broadband Readiness Index (BRI) for Indian states and Union Territories (UT). 
The index will include indicators such as percentage of households using computers/ laptops with internet connection, percentage of households with fixed broadband connection, internet users as a percentage of the population, smartphones density, percentage of households with at least one digitally literate member, etc.

Objectives:
  1. Appraise the condition of the underlying digital infrastructure and related factors at state/UT levels.
  2. Provide useful insights into strategic choices made by states for investment allocations in ICT programs, the statement said.
  3. Encourage states to cross learn and jointly participate in achieving the overall objective of digital inclusion and development in India. 

Significance:
The framework will not only evaluate a state’s relative development but also allow for a better understanding of a state’s strengths and weaknesses that can feed into evidence-based policymaking.

Background:
The National Digital Communication Policy (NDCP) 2018 acknowledged the need for building a robust digital communications infrastructure leveraging existing assets of the broadcasting and power sectors including collaborative models involving state, local bodies and the private sector. The policy recommended that an index for states and UTs be developed to attract investments and address Right of Way (RoW) challenges across India.

ContextSpektr-RG is a Russian–German high-energy astrophysics space observatory launched recently. It follows on from the Spektr-R satellite telescope launched in 2011.

About Spektr- RG:
The Spektrum-Röntgen-Gamma mission, also known as Spektr-RG, is a joint project between the Russian space agency, Roscosmos, and the German space agency, DLR
Position: Spektr-RG will be placed in a stable orbit in space called a Lagrange point (specifically, L2), where the gravitational forces of two large objects — in this case, the sun and the Earth — balance each other out.
This location will allow Spektr-RG to perform its observations while using a minimal amount of fuel.
Objectives: The spacecraft is expected to detect 100,000 galaxy clusters, 3 million supermassive black holes, tens of thousands of star-forming galaxies, the presence of plasma (superheated gas) and many more types of objects.
The observatory includes two X-ray mirror telescopes, called ART-XC and eROSITA.
A key goal of Spektr-RG will be to investigate the mysterious cosmic components referred to as “dark matter” and “dark energy”.

Sources: The Hindu.

Context: Studies show that India’s road transport emissions are small in global comparison but increasing exponentially. In fact, the Global Carbon Project reports that India’s carbon emissions are rising more than two times as fast as the global rise in 2018.

Background:
Globally, the transport sector accounts for a quarter of total emissions, out of which three quarters are from road transport.
Why reduce CO2 emissions from road transport?
Reducing CO2 emissions of road transport leverages multiple co-benefits, for example, improving air quality and increasing physical activity, which are critical for well-being, particularly in urban areas. 
What needs to be done?
  1. The action requires an understanding of how emissions vary with spatial context. In India, income and urbanization are the key determinants of travel distance and travel mode choice and, therefore, commuting emissions.
  2. Mayors and town planners should organize cities around public transport and cycling, thereby improving mobility for many, while limiting car use.
  3. India should double down on its strategy to transition to electric two and three-wheelers. India is the third-largest market for automobiles; about 25 million internal combustion engines were sold in 2017, including about 20 million two-wheelers.
  4. Compact cities improve accessibility and reduce emissions from transport and even the building sector. City managers should ensure that existing urban areas provide short routes and fast access to schools, hospitals, and jobs, otherwise, residents would be required to travel long distances.

Sources: the Hindu.

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